Formulation and Characterization of Aloe-Vera gel and Orange Peel Powder containing Cream

 

Chetan J. Girase, Nilesh K. Nerkar, Revati S. Patil, Darshana M. Borse, Paresh A Patil.

Ahinsa Institute of Pharmacy, Dondaicha, Shindkheda, Dhule. MS 425408 India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: darshanaborse84@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The present research work aimed to formulate and characterize a cost-effective herbal nourishment cream (o/w) containing aloe vera gel and orange peel powder. While, keeping the composition of the cream base the same. The oil phase and aqueous phase consist of aloe vera gel and orange peel powder in different concentrations, which are used in 4 batches of cream. The characterization of creams was carried out by standard methods such as homogeneity tests, smear types, irritancy tests, pH tests, stability tests, sprediability tests, and acid value tests. The economical herbal cream prepared by using fewer chemicals is good for the skin and has moisturising properties. The efficiency of the cream can be improved by increasing the concentration of aloe vera gel and orange peel powder.

 

KEYWORDS: aloe, Orange, Cream, Herbal.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Beginning 1990's cosmetic manufacturer adapted a term 'cosmeceuticals' to describe the OTC skin care products that claims therapeutic benefit by addition of plant based active ingredient to form the base in which one or more herbal ingredients are wont to cure various skin ailment. Such as alpha-hydroxy acid, retinoic acid, ascorbic acid and coenzyme. These active ingredients serves many purposes viz. increase in skin elasticity, delay in skin aging by reducing the wrinkles, protection against UV radiation by antioxidant property and to check degradation of collagen respectively The name suggests that herbal cosmetics are natural and free from all the harmful synthetic chemicals which otherwise may convince be toxic to the skin. Compared to other beauty products, natural cosmetics are safe to use.1,2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In, Ayurveda had utilized many herbs and floras to make cosmetics for beautification and protection from external effects the base in which one or more herbal ingredients are used.

 

To provide defined cosmetic benefits and shall be called “Herbal Cosmetics”. The science of The natural content in the botanicals does not cause any side effects on the human body instead enriches the body with nutrients and useful minerals3

 

Main constituent:

1.     ALOE VERA:

Aloe Vera (aka Aloe barbadensis) is a traditional medicinal succulent used for its health and especially skincare benefits since ancient times. Aloe is naturally rich in Vitamin A, C, E, B12, antioxidants, phytosterols, polysaccharides, folic acid, etc. Aloe Vera is extensively used in cosmetics and beauty products for all good reasons. It has got anti-viral and antibacterial properties, and the ability to treat your skin effectively.

 

Aloe-Vera

 

In fact, aloe has 75 active ingredients – all contributing to its soothing, wound healing, moisturizing, and anti-inflammatory properties.4,5

 

Active components with its properties:

Aloe Vera contains 75 potentially active constituents: vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids.

 

Vitamins:

It contains vitamins A (beta-carotene), C and E, which are antioxidants. It also contains vitamin B12, folic acid, and choline. Antioxidant neutralizes free radicals.

 

Enzymes:

It contains 8 enzymes: aliases, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, Brady kinase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cellulose, lipase, and peroxidase. Brady kinase helps to reduce excessive inflammation when applied to the skin topically, while others help in the breakdown of sugars and fats.

 

Minerals:

It provides calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. They are essential for the proper functioning of various enzyme systems in different metabolic pathways and few are antioxidants.

 

Sugars:

It provides monosaccharaides (glucose and fructose) and polysaccharides: (glucomannans/polymannose). These are derived from the mucilage layer of the plant and are known as mucopolysaccharides. The most prominent monosaccharide is mannose-6-phosphate, and the most common polysaccharides are called glucomannans [beta-(1,4) acetylated mannan]. Acemannan, a prominent glucomannan has also been found. Recently, a glycoprotein with antiallergic properties, called alprogen and novel anti-inflammatory compound, C-glucosyl chromone, has been isolated from Aloe Vera gel.

 

 

Anthraquinones:

It provides 12 anthraquinones, which are phenolic compounds traditionally known as laxatives. Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterial and antivirals.

Fatty acids:

It provides 4 plant steroids; cholesterol, campesterol, βsisosterol and lupeol. All these have anti-inflammatory action and lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic properties.

Hormones:

Auxins and gibberellins that help in wound healing and have anti- inflammatory action.

Others:

It provides 20 of the 22 human required amino acids and 7 of the 8 essential amino acids. It also contains salicylic acid that possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Lignin, an inert substance, when included in topical preparations, enhances penetrative effect of the other ingredients into the skin. Saponins that are the soapy substances form about 3% of the gel and have cleansing and antiseptic properties.11

2.     ORANGE:

Citrus silences (L.) belongs to Rutaceae family fruit. It was widely consumed among humans over the world that had various health benefits include antioxidants, anti- bacterial, and anti-inflammation. Oranges are a type of low calorie, highly nutritious citrus fruit. As part of a healthful and varied diet, oranges contribute to strong, clear skin and can help lower a person’s risk of many conditions. Several types of citrus within the Rutaceae family are grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus Limon), and lime (Citrus aurantifolia). On the other hand, sweet orange peel is also riches by various content of phytochemicals include alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, and steroid. 32

 

Orange chemical structure13:

 

Orange peel powder:

The orange peels, the glycosides hesperidin and naringin are mainly responsible for the purported antioxidant activity of citrus peel extracts14

 

 

Hesperidin:15,28

Chemical name: (2S)-7-[[6-O-(6-Deoxy-alpha-Lmannopyranosyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl] oxy]-2, 3dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H1- benzopyran-4-one

 

Molecular formula: C28H34O15 Molecular weight: 610.1898 g/mol

 

Chemical structure:

 

Category: antioxidant Source Material:

·       Citrus aurantium (Parts: Fruit)

·       Citrus Limon (Parts: Fruit)

·       Citrus medica  (Parts: Fruit)

·       Citrus paradisi  (Parts: Fruit)

·       Citrus reticulata (Parts: Fruit)

·       Citrus sinensis (Parts: Fruit)

 

Source Ingredients: Citrus bioflavonoids

Naringin:16

Chemical name: (2S)-5, 7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2, 3dihydro-4H-1- benzopyran-4-one

 

Molecular formula: C27H32O14

Molecular weight: 580.541g/mol Chemical structure:

 

Naringin chemical structure

In particular, are an abundant source of natural flavonoids, and contain higher amount of phenolic compared to the edible portions. The contents of total phenolic in peels of lemons, oranges, and grapefruit were 15 percent higher than those in the peeled fruits. Flavonoids in citrus are a major class of secondary metabolites. The peel contains the highest amount of flavonoids than other parts and those flavonoids present in citrus fruits belong to six peculiar classes according to their structure. They are: flavones; flavones; flavones; isoflavones; anthocyanin’s and flavones.12

 

The Organic orange peel powder for skin acts as a natural suntan remover, natural skin toner, and skin healing agent. Orange peel is a great beauty ingredient for those with oily skin because it has antibacterial and anti-microbial properties that keep acne and other problems at bay. It works as a skin lightening agent and works on skin marks and pigmentation. Orange peel is the best remedy for tanned skin. It cleanses the skin deeply and gives you even skin tone. It also has antiageing properties and regular usage of orange peel on the skin helps in reducing the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. Great for dry skin too as it has moisturizing properties that smoothen the skin. Organic orange peel powder for skin made up of dried peel of an orange. Pure and does not contain any traces of added chemicals. This is the Edible orange Peel Powder with high levels of vitamin C in oranges. Citrusy, juicy and fresh oranges appeal, whether in taste or beauty.6,7

 

Table No. 01 Composition of prepared herbal cream

Ingredients

F1

F2

F3

F4

OIL PHASE :

 

6.0 ml

 

6.0 ml

 

6.0ml

 

6.0ml

1. Liquid paraffin

2. Stearic acid

5.8gm

5.8gm

5.8gm

5.8gm

3. Coconut oil

3.0ml

3.0ml

3.0ml

3.0ml

Aqueous Phase :

 

6.0ml

 

6.0ml

 

6.0ml

 

6.0ml

1. Glycerin

2. Triethanolamine

2.5ml

2.5ml

2.5ml

2.5ml

3. Citric acid

0.8gm

0.8gm

0.8gm

0.8gm

4. Methyl paraben

0.2gm

0.2gm

0.2gm

0.2gm

5. Water

q.s.

q.s.

q.s.

q.s.

6. Aloe-Vera gel

4ml

6ml

8ml

10ml

7. Orange peel powder

0.4gm

0.6gm

0.8gm

1.0gm

 

MATERIAL AND METHOD:

1.     Collection and authentication of raw material:

Aloe Vera gel was obtained from the leaves of aloe Vera plant. Aloe Vera gel was extracted by simple drain procedure where 2-4 leaves of aloe were cut at about half inch from the base so as to drain out all the yellow sap materials. The mucilage was stirred vigorously in a blender to make it uniform. This solution was strained through a muslin cloth and filtered and the filtrate is stored.

 

 

Aloe Vera was selected due to its moisturizing and soothing effect. Orange were selected because of their unique phytochemical properties. Different phytochemicals are present in orange, out of which Citric acid, flavonoids, and phytochemicals are abundant in the orange peel, making it a powerful antioxidant beneficial for the human skin.8,9

 

2.     Pretreatment of raw materials:

The key ingredients were pretreated before cream formulation. The Aloe vera gel was used in the raw form obtained from the leaves. Similarly, to make your orange peel powder at home peel a couple of oranges and cut the orange peel into small pieces. Spread them on a tray and dry in the sun. Once they become dry, toss them into food processor and dry grind them into a fine powder.10

 

3.     Preparation of cream:

The standard method was used for the preparation of cream. Different formulations were prepared with different concentrations of key ingredients but the base concentration was the same. Firstly, the oil phase and aqueous phase were prepared for the preparation of cream.17,18

a)     Oil phase: The oil phase consisted of 6.0ml of Liquid paraffin, 5.8g of stearic acid and 3.0ml coconut oil. All ingredients of the oil phase were added to a beaker and heated at 75°C with stirring.18

b)    Aqueous phase: The aqueous phase consisted of 6.0 ml of Glycerin, 2.5ml of Triethanolamine, 0.5g of Citric acid, 0.2g of methylparaben and q.s. water. Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder were added in the aqueous phase. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder (Table NO. 01). For the preparation of aqueous phase, all ingredients of aqueous phase were mixed and heated at 750C with stirring.18

 

Preparation of emulsion:

After the preparation of the oil phase and aqueous phase, the aqueous phase was slowly added to the heated oil phase with stirring on a mechanical stirrer. 3–4 drops of rose oil were added during stirring for the aroma effect. When emulsion was cooled stirring stopped18

 

Fig 01

 

Characterization of the creams:

Standard methods were used for the evaluation of prepared creams. The following is a brief detail of the standard method used.19,18

 

Homogeneity and smear test:

The homogeneity test was conducted to examine the composition of prepared creams. It showed whether the creams were homogeneous or not. The homogeneity of prepared creams was examined by physical touch. The smear test was conducted to observe the after-feel effect on the skin. The smear of creams was checked by the application of each cream on the skin and the after-feel effect was observed to examine, whether the creams were greasy or non-greasy19,18,20

      Cream removal and appearance (organoleptic evaluation):

      The removal of creams was checked by applying each cream on the hand and the applied part was washed with tap water. The color, odor and state of prepared creams were examined by physical appearance for organoleptic evaluation.20,18,21

 

      Irritancy test:

      The allergic reactions of creams were observed by the irritancy test. The irritancy test was conducted by applying cream on a small portion of the left hand and the applied portion was examined after 24 hrs. To check any allergy or irritancy. The test was repeated for each cream.18,22

 

      Emulsion test:

      The type of emulsion was examined by the dilution test. A small amount of the cream was taken in two parts; one part was diluted with water and the second part with olive oil. The test was repeated for each cream separately.18,23

 

 

Qualitative analysis of prepared herbal creams

Table No.02

test

F1

F2

F3

F4

Homogeneity :

Homogeneous

Homogeneous

Homogeneous

Homogeneous

Smear type :

Non-greasy

Non-greasy

Non-greasy

Non-greasy

Color :

Pale peach

Crayola yellow

grapefruit

Creamy corn

Odor :

Characteristics

Characteristics

Characteristics

Characteristics

State :

Semi-solid

Semi-solid

Semi-solid

Semi-solid

Irritancy test:

Non-irritant

Non-irritant

Non-irritant

Non-irritant

Emulsion type:

o/w

o/w

o/w

o/w

PH test :

7.8

7.6

7.1

7.4

 

·       pH:

The pH of cream is an important parameter for its efficiency. For pH calculation, four beakers of 50ml were taken. 50ml deionized water was taken in each beaker, 0.5 g each of F1, F2, F3 and F4 was taken in beakers separately, stirred thoroughly and homogeneous solutions were prepared. The pH was calculated in triplicates by the digital pH meter.18,24

 

·       Spreadability test:

The spread ability was checked by placing cream between two glass slides (parallel plate method). Two slides were taken. 20g weight was tied with one slide. The cream was placed between the slides. 100g weight was placed on glass slides for evenly spreading cream on the slide, the upper slide was moved freely under 20g weight. Time taken by upper slide to slip over lower slide was noted and spreadability was calculated in g.cm/s. The experiment was repeated for all the prepared herbal creams. The following formula was used for the calculation of spreadability.18,25

 

S= W×L/T

Where: S = Spread ability, W = weight tied to upper slide, L = length of slide, Time = Time taken by upper slide to slip.

 

·       Acid value:

The acid value was calculated by the reflux reaction of cream in the mixture of solvent dimethyl ether and alcohol. 12ml methanol and 12ml of solvent dimethyl ether were mixed and 7g of cream was added and refluxed the mixture until the sample dissolved. For titration of the sample solution, a 0.1N solution of NaOH was formed and the sample solution was titrated. The indicator was 1 ml phenolphthalein. The solution was titrated until pink color appeared. The volume of NaOH used for the titration of the cream solution was noted. The acid value

Was calculated according to a given formula.18,26

 

Acid Value=V×5.6/W

Whereas, V= NaOH volume used in titration W= weight of sample of cream

 

Sprediability and acid value prepared Herbal creams:

Table No. 03

TEST

F1

F2

F3

F4

Sprediability gm/s

15

12

08

10

Acid value

6.1

6.7

7.2

7.4

 

 

·       Stability test:

The stability of all the creams was checked by measuring both pH and spread ability of the prepared creams at three different temperature conditions i.e. placing creams in an oven, refrigerator and at room temperature for 3-4 days. The temperature was 40 °C in an oven, below 10 °C in the refrigerator and at ambient conditions. The stability study was carried out by comparing values at time 0 and after a 3-4 days interval.18,27

 

·       PH of prepared herbal creams at different temperature of 3 days.

Table No. 04

Different temperature

condition (0 time & 3 days)

F1

F2

F3

F4

PH in time 0

7.8

7.6

7.1

7.4

At room temperature (3 days)

7.7

7.7

7.2

7.5

At 40 oC (3 days)

7.6

7.4

7.6

7.7

Below 10 oC (3 days)

7.9

7.8

7.5

7.6

 

RESULT:

·       Homogeneity and smear test:

The homogeneity and smear test showed that the composition of prepared herbal creams was consistently. The homogeneity was examined at different temperature conditions at zero time and after 3 days. The prepared creams were stable and no change in the homogeneity was observed at different temperature conditions after 3 Days.

Similarly, the smear tests applied on the formulations showed that all the prepared creams were easily absorbed and had a greasy nature.

 

·       Cream removal and appearance (organoleptic evaluation):

In organoleptic evaluation, on washing the applied part of the hand with tap water prepared creams were easily removed. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the colors of creams were different from each other, each cream had a characteristic rose odor. Organoleptic evaluations of prepared herbal creams were noted (table no. 02)

 

·       Irritancy test:

In irritancy test we observed the prepared creams were non-irritant, caused no side effects on the applied area after 24 hrs. All formulations were found safe and good for the skin.

 

·       Emulsion test:

In emulsion test, the prepared creams were diluted both in water and olive oil. While in water prepared creams were diluted homogeneously hence remained stable in water. While In olive oil, prepared creams did not remain homogeneous. So the emulsion type for all formulation (F1, F2, F3 and F4) was oil/water (O/W) was stable one (table no. 02)

 

·       pH test:

The pH of cream is an important parameter for its efficiency. The pH values must be in a range which is suitable for skin. The pH of prepared creams was in the range from 7.1–7.8, which was approximately neutral hence suitable for skin (table no.03) the pH of prepared creams at different temperatures was observed (table no. 03) the comparison and graphical presentation of pH values at different temperature conditions after 3 days.

The comparison of pH values and graphical presentation of pH values were noted

 

·       Spread ability test:

The spreadability results of prepared creams under the weight of 20 g were as follows:

For F1,

The time was taken by upper slide to slip over lower slide = 15 s, Length of slide = 7.5 cm Weight = 20 g.

For F2,

The time was taken by upper slide to slip over lower slide = 12 s, Length of slide =

7.5 cm Weight = 20 g.

For F3,

The time taken by upper slide to slip over lower slide = 08 s, Length of slide = 7.5 cm Weight = 20 g.

For F4,

The time was taken by upper slide to slip over lower slide = 10 s, Length of slide = 7.5 cm,

Weight = 20 g (table no. 04)

The comparison of spreadability values and graphical presentation was noted

 

·       Acid value:

The acid value of all formulations was calculated through the following formula Acid value= V×5.6/W

For F1, the volume of NaOH for titration of the F1 sample solution was (6.1 ml). F2, the volume of NaOH for titration of the F2 sample solution (6.7 ml).

F3, the Volume of NaOH for titration of the F3 sample solution (7.2ml). F4, the Volume of NaOH for titration of the F4 sample (7.4 ml).

The acid values of prepared creams were noted (table no.04). The comparison of acid values and graphical presentation was observed

 

·       Stability test:

The stability was checked by two parameters pH and homogeneity by measuring it at time 0 and after the 3-4 days interval at three different temperature ranges that is the 40°C in an oven, below 10 °C in the refrigerator and at surroundings conditions.

All the formulations passed the test of homogeneity at the selected temperature ranges over 3-4 days.

However, there was a slight variation in the pH

 

DISCUSSION:

In this research we discuss, many natural products are used for skincare and the improvement of damaged skin. Aloe Vera gel is well known for its therapeutic activities, has antiseptic properties, facilitates tissue penetration, and has anti- inflammatory action. It contains many useful components such as vitamins, lipids and amino acids. Oranges are used commonly in our daily life the orange peels, in which the glycosides hesperidin and naringin. Which is an important antioxidant. Aloe Vera gel and orange peels are beneficial for human health, due to their nutritional values. At present, there is no commercial cream available that was based on both Aloe Vera and dried orange peel for herbal skin remedies. Hence, in this research work, various herbal creams containing Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder were prepared and characterized using standard methods. I.e. the homogeneity test of creams showed that the prepared creams had uniform composition. The organoleptic evaluation showed that formulations i.e. F1, F2, F3 and F4 had different colors ranging from pale peach, Crayola yellow, grapefruit and creamy corn. All creams had a characteristic acceptable odor and semisolid state.

 

The smear test confirmed that all formulations were non-greasy and had good moisturizing effects. Prepared creams were easily removed with tap water, which indicated that prepared herbal creams could be used easily that also support the skin. The irritancy test confirmed that prepared creams caused no allergic reaction and skin irritation, which indicated that creams were safe for use. Results were confirmed from the literature. The emulsion test confirmed that prepared creams were oil/water emulsions. The previous findings showed that oil/water emulsions are stable for creams. The pH of skin creams is an important parameter for the indication of their efficiency. The pH of human skin is slightly acidic. The pH of prepared herbal formulations was in the range of 7.1–7.8 the pH of the prepared cream was near neutral so it is acceptable for the skin. Literature showed that approximate neutral pH is acceptable for skin creams

 

The extent to which the cream spreads on the skin after application is known as spreadability. The efficacy of cream depends on its spreadability. Uniform application on the skin depends on the spreadability of cream. The spread ability values of prepared herbal creams were in the range 10-15 which were in the suitable range.

 

The amount of base in milligram which is required to neutralize free acid present in 1g substance is known as acid value.33 The acid values of prepared herbal creams were in the range of 6.1 to 7.4 the stability study was done at after 3 days interval. Two parameters, pH and homogeneity were examined at different temperature conditions after 3 days. The homogeneity and pH values of prepared herbal creams at time zero and after the 3 days interval were compared for stability results. The comparison of pH values in zero time and after a 3 days interval showed that slight variations were observed in pH values at different temperature conditions during 3 -4 days Variations in the pH values of F2and F3 were in a suitable range. The prepared creams remained homogeneous at different temperature conditions over 3-4 days.29,30,31

 

The prepared creams can be used for the treatment of rough and dry skin due to the moisturizing effect. Orange peel powder was present in prepared creams that have antioxidant properties and can be helpful in the suntan issue of skin. Prepared herbal cream contains natural ingredients that can provide different nutrients to the skin.

 

CONCLUSION:

The present work concluded that economical herbal cream containing Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder can be prepared by simple methods and ingredients. The creams were prepared by using chemicals, so good for the skin. Four creams were prepared with different ratios of Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder. First 3 of creams were homogeneous, semi- solid and had a characteristic odor. The prepared creams caused no side effects, safe for human skin. First 3 batches of creams have pH within a suitable range. First 3 batches of creams were stable at different temperature conditions during the 3- 4 days no phase separation was observed during the stability study. The 4th batch of cream are not showed homogeneous, semi-solid property and it also showed phase separation so, 4th batch of cream are failed. The F3 formulation had more moisturizing and antioxidant properties because of the maximum concentration of Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder. The efficiency of creams can be improved by increasing the concentration of Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder. The present formulation can be utilized for the preparation of different herbal skincare products by changing base composition. Changes in the ratio of Aloe Vera gel and orange peel powder can change the efficiency of prepared cream. Change in the cream formulation can be done for better results.

 

The current research highlights importance of herbal cosmetics, the herbs used in them and their advantages over the synthetic counterparts. The present study revealed that herbal cosmetics are very safe and does not produce any toxic and adverse reactions compare to marketed cosmetics products. We suggest that, use herbal cosmetics in future, will avoid skin problems. In which creams are semisolid formulations widely acceptable by the society. Creams are meant for wider applications in the skin like beautification, regeneration, treatment and maintenance. The use and type of cream depends on the need of person.

 

Now - a day’s herbal creams are more acceptable as compared to synthetic marketed products. In future, herbal based creams will acquire the entire market.

 

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Received on 21.09.2023            Accepted on 15.10.2023         

Accepted on 17.11.2023           ©A&V Publications all right reserved

Research J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 2023; 14(2):65-72.

DOI: 10.52711/2321-5844.2023.00010