Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Anti-acne Face Scrub

 

Siddhi Pise 1, Fareed Shaikh2, Payaam Vohra2*

1M Pharmacy Student at CU Shah College of Pharmacy.

2Final Year B Pharm. Student, H K College of Pharmacy, Jogeshwari West, Mumbai, Maharashtra-400102.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: payaamvohra@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

During the puberty, an imbalance of internal constituents and hormonal balance may cause many skin problems. Acne is found as a most common skin problem. The current proposal aims to unfold the potential benefits of coriander to combat acne problems. Medicinal plants are used all over the world to treat various diseases due to its variety of phytochemical constituents. Ideally, topical therapy is the primary treatment for many skin diseases. Among the various topical formulations, face scrub has been considered as a potential vehicle due to its non-sticky nature, stability and greater aesthetic value. The objective of this proposed study was to develop a herbal topical facial scrub formulation containing Coriandrum sativum to treat acne and serve as a safe, effective and alternative therapy to the current conventional harmful antibiotics. Extracts of the selected plant were incorporated into a cream base and evaluated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, spreadability and antibacterial activity against S. epidermis. The physicochemical evaluation of the developed formulation showed no lumps along with easy washability, good spreadability and neutral pH. The study results concluded that the ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum in a cream base system is an appropriate formulation for the for topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

 

KEYWORDS: Antiacne, Herbal Face scrub, Coriander leaves, Walnut powder and Kokum base.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Skin is the largest organ in the body and covers the body’s entire external surface which protects our body from various factors. Its surface area is 1.5-2m2. Skin serves as a body’s initial barrier against pathogens, UV light, chemicals and mechanical injury. It also regulates temperature and the amount of water released in the environment.

 

Acne, also commonly known as acne vulgaris, pimple, etc. It is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the pilosebaceous unit—hair follicles in the skin that are associated with an oil gland. Acne includes

 

 

Fig 1: Structure of skin

 

seborrhea (excess grease), non-inflammatory lesions (open and closed comedones), inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules), and various degrees of scarring. The distribution of acne is on the face, neck, upper chest, shoulders and back. During puberty, in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in hormones such as testosterone. A frequent factor is the excessive growth of the bacterium. Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin. Acne vulgaris tends to be more severe in males while its frequency increases in females in the age of puberty. Acne is more common in females than males1-6

 

Face scrub:

·      Face skin gets exposed to bacteria, pollutants and dirt throughout the day, so face scrub removes the impurities from the skin.

·      Face scrub exfoliates the skin which helps to deep cleanse the skin and open the clogged pores which enhances the penetration of drugs and moisturizers making the skin to glow and appear attractive.

·      Herbal cosmetics do not provoke allergic reactions and do not have negative side effects.

·      Ingredients used for herbal formulations are easily available and cheap.

·      Herbal products or extracts containing vitamins, antioxidants, antiseptics, anti-acne and anti-ageing properties incorporated in face scrub gel which helps to enhance the anti-acne activity and slow down the ageing process of the skin.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY:

Extraction of coriander leaves:

The matured leaves of coriander were purchased from Dadar market, Mumbai. The leaves were washed properly. The leaves were separated from stems and then chopped, then dried  in the shade. 100g dried leaves were weighed and soaked in 500ml ethanol solvent in 1000ml beaker by hot maceration method for 24hrs. Temperature maintained during hot maceration is 40 degrees. The extracted juices were filtered by using a clean cloth and then filter paper. The filtrate was evaporated and residue is collected.

 

Extract was concentrated, dried and stored in airtight container. The extracted residues were weighed and percent yield was calculated. The yield of leaves was found to be 9% w/w. The extracts were then kept in a refrigerator for formulation, evaluation and phytochemical investigations.7-11

 

Percentage yield = Weight of crude / Weight of plant material × 100 %  

yield = 9 / 100 ×100

Percentage yield = 9%

 

Formulation development.12-16

Preparation of base -

Oil phase contains stearic acid, combination of butters, olive oil, lanolin, glyceryl monostearate.

 

Water phase contains isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, triethanolamine, distilled water.

 

Oil base is added in the water base.

 

Method of preparation for blank formulation:

Phase A – Stearic acid, combination of butters, olive oil, glyceryl monostearate, lanolin was melted in a beaker at 70 degrees Celsius.

 

Phase B – Isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, triethanolamine, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, distilled water as a water phase, this mixture was heated at a constant temperature 70 degree Celsius.

 

Phase A and phase B was mixed at temperature 70 degree Celsius by continuous stirring.

 

Base was selected according to its spreadability on hand.

 

Inference – From above 4 batches, formulation no. 2, 3, 4 shows acceptable results for consistency and spreadability and formulation no 1(B1) shows lotion like consistency. So, formulation no B2, B3, B4 are taken for incorporation of extract

 

Fig 2: Preparation of base

 

Optimization of scrubbing agent17-19

Scrubber or exfoliator texture was compared to marketed formulation for scrubbing texture. Walnut shell powder was passed through different mesh sizes to check optimum scrubbing effect.

 

Coarser particles were obtained by sieving through mesh size #36 which showed scrubbing effect similar to marketed formulation when incorporated in to cream base.

 

Method of preparation for drug incorporation:

Phase A – Stearic acid, combination of butters, olive oil, glyceryl monostearate, lanolin was melted in a beaker at 70 degrees Celsius.

 

Phase B – Isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, triethanolamine, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, distilled water as a water phase, this mixture was heated at a constant temperature 70 degree Celsius.

Phase A and phase B was mixed at a temperature 70 degree Celsius by continuous stirring.

 

Dry extract and water were added in the formulation.

Finally scrubbing agent was added.

 

Inference – Ethanolic extract of coriander were prepared and incorporated as an active ingredient having anti-acne, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity separately in selected formulations i.e., F1, F2, F3.

 

F3 shows less spreadability and is hard than other two formulations. Formulation no F2 shows good consistency, spreadability, extrudability as compared to F1 formulation

 

Table 1: Test for coriander leaves extract 20,21

Test

Inference

Shinoda test

Flavonoid is present.

Dragendroff test

Alkaloids are present.

Bromine water

Tannins and phenolic compounds are present.

Foam test

Saponin is present.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         


 

Table 2: Formulation table for extract loaded batches 22-24

Ingredients

F1

F2

F3

Role

Stearic Acid

4.5%

5.5%

6%

Emulsifier

Mango butter + kokum butter

5.5%

5.5%

5.5%

Moisturizing agent

Olive oil

5.5%

5.5%

5.5%

Emollient

Lanolin

1%

1.5%

1.5%

Emollient/ Hydrophobic base

Glyceryl monostearate

3.5%

5%

5.5%

Surfactant/ Foaming agent

Isopropyl myristate

2.5%

3%

3%

Thickening agent

Propylene glycol

4%

4%

4%

Humectant

Triethanolamine

1.5%

2%

2%

Buffering agent

Methyl paraben

0.02%

0.02%

0.02%

Preservative

Propyl paraben

0.008%

0.008%

0.008%

Preservative

Walnut shell powder

1.5%

2%

2%

Exfoliant

Extract

1%

1%

1%

Active ingredient

Distilled water

q.s up to 100%

q.s up to 100%

q.s up to 100%

Vehicle

 

Figure 4: Extract loaded face scrub


 

Evaluation parameters25-30

 

Extrudability - 10g of formulation was taken in to a collapsible ointment tube. One     end closed and the other end was kept opened slight pressure was applied closed tube side. The time taken to extrude and the amount of formulation extruded was noted.

 

Foamability: Different quantities of formulation with 10ml of water was mixed and shaken and foam was observed.

 

Fig. 5: Foamability test

 

Irritability – Small amount of the formulation was applied on the skin and was found to be non-irritant

 

Extrudability - 10g of formulation was taken in to a collapsible ointment tube. One end closed and the other end kept opened slight pressure was applied closed tube side. The time taken to extrude and the amount of formulation extruded was noted.

 

Washability - Little quantity of scrub was applied over the skin and washed with water.

 


 

 

Before

 

 

After


Table 4 : Evaluation result of extract loaded batches -

Parameters

F1

F2

F3

Appearance

Light greenish brown  colour

Light greenish brown   colour

Light greenish brown  colour

Homogeneity

No phase separation

No phase separation

No phase separation

Ph

6.4

6.8

7.1

Spreadability (cm2)

16.08

19.24

15

Extrudability

Easily extruded

Easily extruded

Not easily extruded

Washability

Easily washable

Easily washable

Easily washable

Foamability (10ml H2O)

6ml

8ml

8.5ml

Irritancy

Non irritant

Non irritant

Non irritant

 


Anti-microbial activity of coriander extract:

The plant extracts obtained above were screened for their antibacterial activity in comparison with standard antibiotic clindamycin in vitro by well diffusion method. Sterile plates, conical flask, measuring cylinder was used. The apparatus was sterilized in the hot oven at 60 degree and then were used. The control used for this process is DMSO. The lawn  culture of test organism (Staphylococcus epidermis) on nutrient agar media were used for well diffusion methods. With the help of a sterile cup borer, wells were made in the inoculated plates. The extract of Coriandrum sativum with different concentrations (2.5mg/ml, 5mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 250mg/ml) was prepared was poured into the well and allowed to diffuse  in the agar medium. The plates were incubated at 37˚C overnight. The antibacterial activity   of the extract was determined by measuring the diameters of the zone of inhibition. For bacterial strain, control was maintained where pure solvent without extracts was used.31-35

 

Results:

Table 5. Results of anti- microbial test for extract:

Concentration of plant extract in mg/ml

Zone of inhibition

(Staphylococcus epidermis) in mm

Standard

25mm

Control

0.8mm

2.5mg/ml

11mm

5mg/ml

11mm

10mg/ml

18mm

50mg/ml

11mm

100mg/ml

14mm

250mg/ml

13mm

 

Fig. 6 : A) Zone of inhibition of control, standard (5mg/ml), 2.5mg/ml, 5mg/ml.

B) Zone of inhibition of 10mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 250mg/ml.

 

Hence the extract shows higher activity against Staphylococcus epidermis at concentration 10mg/ml.

 

CONCLUSION:

In nutshell, we can say that this herbal face scrub can bring about a paradigm shift by being an archetype in the field of Anti-acne formulations. Thus, in this research, we successfully carried out the formulation, Characterization and optimization of an Anti-Acne herbal face scrub The following conclusions can be drawn from the study – 1. The extract-loaded formulation F2 Shows good appearance, spreadability, consistency and extrudability. 2. Formulation containing ethanolic extract has shown significant anti-bacterial activity

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

We hold no conflict of interest for the following manuscript

 

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Received on 13.06.2023         Accepted on 27.07.2023        

Accepted on 10.08.2023        ©A&V Publications all right reserved

Research J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 2023; 14(2):53-57.

DOI: 10.52711/2321-5844.2023.00008