An Overview on Invasomes: Novel Vesicular Carrier for Transdermal Drug Delivery


Swarnima Pandey1*, Vikas Srivastava2

1Hygia College of Pharmacy Faizullaganj Ganj Road, Lucknow.

2Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Faizabad Road, Lucknow.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



Multifunctional organ of the human body is the skin and it has less porousness across the layer corneum and this layer is the hindrance for dynamic specialists. To expand the penetrability of dynamic specialists, novel vesicular transporter invasomes are presented. Invasomes give different preferences including upgrading patient consistence, improving the medication adequacy and increment the pervasion of hydrophilic medications. This is a vesicular transporter that improves the Transdermal infiltration contrasted with ordinary liposomes. Invasomes comprise of phospholipid, terpenes, ethanol, and water. These constituents assume a significant part in improving its infiltration capacity. In this review paper, a wide presentation of TDDS (transdermal medication conveyance framework) is clarified and different segments, strategies for arrangement, segments, benefits, and faults of invasomes are featured.


KEYWORDS: Invasomes, Permeation enhancement, Transdermal, vesicular drug delivery systems.




Transdermal drug delivery system is defined are referred as self-contained discrete dosage forms which when applied to intact skin, transport this drug at a controlled rate to the systemic circulation. The transdermal drug delivery system is a fundamental part of a novel drug delivery system. To overcome the limitation of conventional drug delivery advanced drug delivery method such as TDD has been exploited.1


Transdermal therapeutic systems have been designed to provide controlled continuous delivery of drugs via the skin to the systemic circulation.2


During the previous few years, interest in the improvement of novel medication conveyance frameworks for existing medication particles has been restored. The advancement of a novel conveyance framework for existing medication atoms not just improves the medication's presentation as far as viability and security yet additionally improves patient consistency and by and large remedial advantage to a critical degree. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) are characterized as independent, discrete measurement structures which are otherwise called "patches", when patches are applied to the flawless skin, convey the medication through the skin at a controlled rate to the foundational course. TDDS are measurement structures intended to convey a remedially compelling measure of medication across a patient's skin.3


The principal objective of the transdermal medication conveyance framework is to convey drugs into foundational dissemination into the skin through the skin at the foreordained rate with negligible entomb and intrapatient variety. At present transdermal conveyance is perhaps the most encouraging strategy for drug application.  It lessens the heap that the oral course regularly puts on the stomach-related plot and liver. It upgrades patient compliances and limits hurtful results of a medication caused from brief over portion and is comfortable in transdermal conveyed drugs that require just once pitifully application.4


The transdermal drug delivery system is a non-invasive and painless method for the delivery of drugs to systemic circulation. It controlled rate for which the substance needs to penetrate through the sublayer of skin.4


Transdermal medication conveyance framework has created not exclusively to sidestep the hepatic Ist - pass disposal yet additionally to keep a consistent, delayed, and restoratively viable medication level in the body. As of late there has been an expanding mindfulness that the advantages of intravenous medication imbuement can be effortlessly copied, without its possible dangers, by continuous transdermal medication organization through flawless skin.5


The potential of transdermal drug delivery systems has been demonstrated in recent years with the approval of several medicines for use by patients who are unable to use conventional dosage routes, like oral administration or injection.6


Constant I.V. mixture has been perceived as a prevalent method of fundamental medication conveyance that can be custom-made to keep a steady and supported medication level inside a remedial focus range however long needed for successful treatment.7



Skin cover about 2 sq. m of total surface area and it is the longest organ of the human body skin provides a protective barrier between the body and the extended environment


Against UV radiation, chemicals, water, and microorganisms.


Skin can be divided into three main regions:

1.     The outermost layer, the epidermis, contains the stratum corneum.

2.     The middle layer, the dermis. 

3.     The innermost layer, the hypodermis.8,9



The epidermis is the furthest layer of the skin and differs in thickness with roughly 0.8mm on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet. It comprises multi-layered areas of epithelial cells and the suitable epidermis is regularly alluded to as the epidermal layers beneath the layer corneum. The cell substance of the epidermis comprises prevalently of keratinocytes (around 95% of cells), with different cells of the epidermal layers including melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells.10 The layer corneum is the shallowest layer of the epidermis. It is in direct contact with the outer climate and its hindrance properties may be mostly identified with its high thickness (1.4g/cm3 in the dry state) and its low hydration of 15%–20%. The cells of the layer corneum are made principally out of insoluble keratins (70%) and lipid (20%). Water in the layer corneum is related to the keratin in the corneocytes.11



Dermis comprises broad microvasculature network structures like perspiration organs, hair follicles, and the more modest veins. Along these lines, to have drug conveyance through the skin, the medication should pass through the epidermis into the dermis where it tends to be consumed by vessels into the circulatory framework. Inward and bigger (90%) skin layer involves essentially connective tissue and gives underpins to the epidermis layer of the skin. The limit among the dermis and epidermis layer is called the Dermal-Epidermal intersection which gives an actual boundary for the huge atoms of medication and cells.12,13



The hypodermis is the spot with bigger blood and lymph vessels where fat is put away. It is the fat tissue layer that is found in between of dermis and aponeurosis and fasciae of the muscles. The subcutaneous fat tissue is basically and practically all around coordinated with the dermis through the nerve and vascular organizations. This layer is made out of free connective tissues and its thickness fluctuates as indicated by the outside of the body.14


Fig.1: Structure of Skin



Drug permeates through stratum corneum via three processes:

1.     The Appendageal Route:

The appendageal courses are otherwise called the shunt courses and incorporate saturation through the perspiration organs and across the hair follicles with their related sebaceous organs. Curiously, a similar report additionally showed that the generally held perspective on the follicles giving around 0.1% of the SC gives off an impression of being legitimate for lower arm skin.


2.     Transcellular route:

Medications entering the skin through the transcellular course pass through the corneocytes. Corneocytes containing profoundly hydrated keratin give a watery climate from which hydrophilic medications can pass. The transcellular pathway requires not just parceling into and dispersion through the keratin blocks yet additionally into and across the intercellular lipids.


3.     Intercellular route:

The intercellular course includes drug dissemination through the constant lipid grid. This course is a huge snag for two reasons: (I) reviewing the "blocks and mortar" model of SC, the interdigitating idea of the corneocytes yields a convoluted pathway for intercellular medication pervasion, which is as opposed to the moderately immediate way of the transcellular course. (ii) The intercellular space is a district of substituting organized bilayers. Subsequently, a medication should consecutively parcel into and diffuse through rehashed watery and lipid spaces. This course is by and large acknowledged as the most regular way for little uncharged atoms infiltrating the skin.


Properties of Penetration Enhancers:17

Attractive properties for infiltration enhancers acting inside the skin have been given as

·       They ought to be non-poisonous, non-aggravating and non-allergenic.

·       They would preferably work quickly, and the movement and term of impact ought to be both unsurprising and reproducible.

·       They ought to include no pharmacological action inside the body.

·       The entrance enhancers should work unidirectional for example ought to permit helpful specialists into the body while keeping the deficiency of endogenous material from the body.



·       Avoidance of the first-pass metabolism.

·       Transdermal medication conveyance empowers the evasion of gastrointestinal retention with its related entanglements of enzymatic and pH-related deactivation.

·       As a substitute for the oral course.

·       Evasion of gastrointestinal contradiction.

·       Limiting unwanted results.

·       Give use of medication short organic half-lives, thin helpful window.

·       Keeping away from drug vacillation drug levels.

·       Inter and Intra patient variety.

·       plasma grouping of strong drugs is kept up.

·       End of treatment is simple anytime of time.20

·       Minimize inter and intra patient variation.21



·       The transdermal drug delivery system cannot deliver ionic drugs.

·       It cannot achieve high drug levels in the blood.

·       It cannot develop for drugs of large molecular size.

·       It cannot deliver drugs in a pulsatile fashion.

·       It cannot develop if the drug or formulation irritates the skin.

·       Possibility of local irritation at the site of application.

·       May cause an allergic reaction.

·       the hindrance capacity of the skin of changes starting with one site then onto the next on a similar individual, from one individual to another and with age.24

·       Only small, lipophilic drugs can be delivered currently through. [25]

·       For each drug concentration varies for effective response.26



Invasomes are novel vesicles with improved percutaneous infiltration contrasted with the regular liposomes. Invasomes are novel versatile phospholipid vesicles made out of phosphatidylcholine, ethanol, and one or a combination of terpenes. Numerous scientists have effectively affirmed the capacity of terpenes in improving percutaneous infiltration. Their infiltration upgrading action is through the disturbance of the layer corneum lipids, association with intracellular proteins, and improvement of apportioning of the medication into the layer corneum. Ethanol improves the vesicular capacity to enter the layer corneum. What's more, ethanol gives a net negative surface charge and forestalls vesicle accumulation because of electrostatic shock. A synergistic impact between terpenes and ethanol on the percutaneous assimilation has been altogether noticed. Terpenes, the normally happening unstable oils are remembered for the rundown of for the most part perceived as protected substances with low irritancy at lower fixations (1-5%), with reversible impact on the lipids of layer corneum are considered as clinically adequate entrance enhancers. Invasomes are portrayed for size, surface morphology, zeta potential, soundness. 27


Fig.2: Structure of invasome



Invasomes (as named by the innovators) were presented by the gathering of Professor Alfred Fahr. They were made out of unsaturated soybean lecithin (with high % PC), a modest quantity of ethanol, and a modest quantity of a combination of terpenes (cineole, citral, and d-limonene). Unsaturated phospholipids were picked as they, because of their low Tm, lead to the arrangement of liposomes being in the fluid glasslike thermodynamic state. The motivation behind utilizing terpenes was to grant deformability to the transporter. It was assumed that terpenes, which are utilized as entrance enhancers, as they increment the fluidity of SC lipid bilayers, would likewise build the ease of vesicles' bilayers. Specifically, terpenes have been demonstrated to be strong enhancers for an assortment of medications, for example, nicardipine, lorazepam, clonazepam, haloperidol, nicardipine, carbamazepine, tamoxifen, and so on Examinations utilizing differential checking calorimetry (DSC) and x-beam diffraction uncovered that terpenes increment drug saturation by upsetting lipid bundling of the SC and additionally upsetting the stacking of the bilayers.


Also, the upgraded skin entrance of different medications should be an aftereffect of expanded medication solvency in the SC treated by terpenes. The lipophilic medications show expanded infiltration because of their expanded segment coefficient SC/vehicle, what's more, their entrance builds relatively to their dissolvability in the enhancer. For drugs, their infiltration is thought to be improved because of their expanded dissemination coefficient28



·       Phospholipid

·       Terpenes

·       Ethanol

The synthesis of the invasomes is portrayed in. Synergistic changes altogether these segments (i.e., unsaturated phospholipids, terpenes, and ethanol) are refined in more profound skin drug levels than on account of conventional liposomes or a medication arrangement. recognized this while exploring invasomal cyclosporine-A statement and accomplishing promising outcomes in alopecia areata treatment. Especially, this is a subset of liposomes. As a result of penetrative promoters (terpene and ethanol), invasomes offer high infiltration potential. As indicated by the writing, invasomes comprise phosphatidylcholine, ethanol, and terpene/mix of terpenes and every one of these parts has a critical capacity in invasomes like bilayer shaping (phosphatidylcholine) and edge initiation (lysophosphatidylcholine), and infiltration improvement (ethanol, terpene). Especially, it is imperative to take note that bilayer parts give vesicles "inflexibility" or "ease." Surveys expressed that the ascent in intrusive vesicle entrance is straightforwardly subject to the smoothness and flexibility of the bilayer of lipid vesicles. A lot of distributions expressed that super adaptable lipid vesicles which are a lot more modest than vesicles can react to an applied upgrade by rapidly distorting the shape and going through skin pores. Notwithstanding improved entrance, ethanol produces a particularly negative surface burden and insignificant vesicular conglomeration because of electrostatic shock, which adds to expanded intrusive security under states of capacity. [29]


Fig.3: Components of Invasome



1.     Mechanical dispersion technique:

Medication and terpene or combinations of terpenes are disintegrated in ethanolic phospholipid arrangement. The blend is vortexed for 5 min and afterward sonicated for 5 min to get a reasonable arrangement. Phosphate cushion saline (PBS) (pH: 7.4) is added to the arrangement by a needle under consistent vortexing. The vortexing proceeds for an extra 5 min. The last advance is the expulsion of multilamellar vesicles through polycarbonate films of diverse pore sizes. The invasion scatterings are expelled through each polycarbonate film a few times.30,31,32


2. Film hydration technique:

Invasmes can likewise be set up by the traditional film technique. Phospholipids in ethanol are disintegrated in methanol: Chloroform (2:1, v/v). This blend is dried to a meager film by gradually decreasing the pressing factor from 500 to 1 bar at 50°C utilizing the turning streak evaporator. The film is held under vacuum (1 bar) for 2 h at room temperature and consequently flushed with nitrogen. At that point, the film saved is either hydrated for 30 min at lipid stage progress with a combination of phosphate cradle (pH: 7.4; PBS) containing ethanol and terpenes or it is hydrated utilizing PBS (pH: 7.4) and in the wake of cooling to room temperature, ethanol and a solitary terpene or a terpene blend are included request to get invasomes. The acquired vesicles are vortexed, ultrasonicated, and therefore measured by expulsion a few times through polycarbonate films of various pore sizes.33,34



·       Entrapment Efficiency

·       Surface Morphology

·       Stability Studies

·       Drug Content

·       Vesicular size

·       Ex Vivo Permeation Studies


Entrapment Efficiency:

Capture productivity was concentrated by ultracentrifugation strategy. 1ml of invasomal detailing was moved to Ephendroff tubes, centrifuged at 15000 rpm, 4°C for 15 min in two cycles to isolate the unentrapped drug. The reasonable portion was utilized for assurance of free medication. Rate entangled is determined by implication from the amount of free drug from the formula.35,36


Entrapment Efficiency (%) = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑟𝑢𝑔𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑑𝑟𝑢𝑔𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑟𝑢𝑔×100


Surface Morphology:

Surface morphology was concentrated by putting a drop of planning on a clear glass slide, air dried, covered with gold utilizing falter coater (Polaron E5100, Watford, UK), and envisioned under filtering electron microscopy. 36


Stability Studies:

Improved invasomal detailing was fixed in a 10ml glass vial and put away at refrigeration temperature (4 - 8°C) and room temperature for one month. Entanglement productivity, the actual appearance was resolved at standard stretches. [36]


Drug Content:

The medication substance of the invasomes can be controlled by utilizing a bright spectrophotometer. This can be evaluated by an adjusted elite fluid chromatographic technique. [37]


Vesicular size:

Invasomes can be pictured by utilizing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Vesicle size and zeta potential molecule size of the invasomes can be controlled by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and photon relationship spectroscopy. [38]


Ex Vivo Permeation Studies:

The penetration of invasome details was controlled by using the Franz dissemination cell. The compelling surface zone of the cell was 2.0 cm² and has a receptor volume of 20ml. The skin was mounted on the receptor compartment with the layer corneum side confronting upwards into the contributor compartment. The highest point of the dissemination cell was covered with a top. The contributor compartment was applied with invasomal planning and 20 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate cushion saline kept up at 37ºC was utilized as receptor medium. Aliquot sums were removed and supplanted by new media to keep a sink condition. Tests were examined utilizing a UV spectrophotometer. 39



·       The non-intrusive procedure of medication conveyance.

·       Upgraded penetration of medication through the skin for transdermal medication conveyance.

·       Conveyance of hydrophilic and lipophilic medication is conceivable.

·       Contains non-poisonous crude material in the plan.



·       It’s high production cost.

·       Leakage and fusion of encapsulated drug/ molecule.

·       The phospholipid present may undergo hydrolysis/oxidation, thus affecting the stability of Invasomes.



All authors have equally contributed for the preparation of manuscript.



Promising outcomes were acquired with invasome definition containing limonene on account of the lipophilicity of the terpene and its low limit. Discoveries from this investigation show that transdermal conveyance of invasomes exemplifying medication particles in blend with iontophoresis might be pertinent to different medications to expand the saturation through the skin; anyway, the improvement accomplished will rely generally upon the convergence of phospholipid and sort of the terpene. All in all, the aftereffects of this investigation exhibit that it is conceivable to accomplish added substance improvement by a blend of physical and synthetic infiltration upgrades strategies.



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Received on 12.03.2021            Accepted on 17.06.2021           

Accepted on 06.09.2021            ©AandV Publications all right reserved

Research J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 2021; 12(2):107-112.

DOI: 10.52711/2321-5844.2021.00015