Phytopharmaceuticals as Cosmetic Agents: A Review

 

Sankalp Goswami, Prachi Sharma and Yogesh Shivhare*

Department of Pharmacognosy, RKDF College of Pharmacy, Bhopal (M.P.), India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: yogesh_aot@rediffmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. It is believed to have originated in Egypt and India, but the earliest records of cosmetic substances and their application dates back to circa 2500 and 1550 B.C. to the Indus valley civilization.

The growing scientific evidence, that plants posses a vast and complex arsenal of active ingredients (phytochemicals) able, not only to calm or smooth the skin but actively restore, heal and protect the skin, has increased their use in cosmetics. As many herbal agents used in cosmetics have been selected by a process of 'trial and error”, there use is based on experience rather than experimental investigation. They may be utilized for cosmetic in three forms as total extracts or single molecules purified from extracts (e.g. aloe vera gel,teas,plant extracts) selective extract (e.g.liquorice,ginkgo,wheat germ)or single natural molecules (e.g.vitamins,coenzyme Q10).The following  summary shows only plants that have been shown to be effective in scientific studies.

 

KEYWORDS: Phytochemicals, Phytopharmaceuticals, Cosmetics

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

'Back to nature' is not merely a slogan in the whole world. The visible proof is the use of traditional herbal medicine and various phytopharmaceuticals of various types of medical plants, from ages. Phytopharmaceuticals are pharmaceutical agent of plant origin or medicinal preparations obtained from plants.(1) They enclose plant material as their pharmacologically active components.(2) They have been explicitly used since the dawn of human civilization to maintain health and to treat or prevent diseases. W.H.O. estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently use herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for mitigation and cure of various ailments.(3) Cosmeceuticals, represent the marriage of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. They are cosmetic products with biologically active ingredients purporting to have medical or drug-like benefits.

 

They can acts as a peeling, a dermabrasion, exfoliates the skin, speed up cellular renewal, repair damage from sunburn and correct uneven pigmentation (4). Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants, which are biologically active but not nutritive. The term generally refers to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients (5) The ethno-social beliefs of people strengthen the practice of alternative medicine while on the other hand, a high frequency of adverse drug reactions associated with conventional medicines, fuel the growing interest in natural products. Furthermore, an emergence of scientific evidences in support of efficacy of plant-derived drugs has added impetus to this endeavor. Phytopharmaceuticals have been largely put to use in manufacture of various dosage forms. These have been employed both as active agents for treating chronic diseases like rheumatism, hypertension, diabetes etc. and also as pharmaceutical excipients with their extensive prospects, in the treatment of such chronic diseases, they may also be used as cosmeceuticals(6) .

 

In this review article, the data on several phytochemicals, with their botanical source have been collected from various literature sources, along with their use in cosmetics, and enumerated  in Table-1 given below-

 


Table 1. Phytochemicals used as Cosmetics (7-17)

S.N.

Name of Phytochemicals

Source and Common name

Use in cosmetics

1.

Allicin,Adenosine

Allium sativum (Garlic)

Skin healer.

2.

Saponin,Flavanoids

Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel)

Deodorant.

3.

Flavanoids,Triterpenoids

Citrus medica (Lemon)

Astringent.

4.

Triterpenoids

Mentha arvenois (Mint)

Anti - perspirant.

5.

Flavanoids

Malus pumila (Apple)

Anti-ageing agent.

6.

Limonoids,Tetranor triterpenoids

Azadirachta indica (Neem)

For treatment of acne.

7.

Saponins,Triterpenoids

Panax ginseng (Ginseng)

Hair strengthener.

8.

Saponins

Cereus grandiflorus (Cactus)

Moisturizer, skin tightner.

9.

Sesquiterpene,Lactones

Cichorium intybus (Chicory)

Reduces skin blemishes.

10.

Safranal carotenoids

Crocus sativus (Saffron)

For post bath massage.

11.

Glycyrrhizic acid

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice)

Has sunscreen activity.

12.

Glycyrrhizin

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice)

Corrects   skin discolorations.

13.

Santalins

Pterocarpus santalinus (Red sandal wood)

Soothing and cooling effect in skin creams.

14.

Nordihydro guaiaretic acid

Larrea tridentate (Chaparral )

Has sunscreen activity.

15.

Arbutin

Arotos taphylos (Uva ursi)

Melanin secretion inhibiting.

16.

Squalene

Bucida spinosa (Dwarf Black Olive)

Shows emollient action.

17.

Rutin

Afrormosia laxiflora (Kulkuli)

Emollient, Antioxidants

18.

Alginic acid,Algin

Macrocystis pyrifera (Kelp)

Thickening and suspending agent

19.

S(-)citronellal

Citrus hystix ( Kaffir lime)

Flavouring agent.

20.

Tannins

Rubus fructicosus (Blackberry)

Reduces skin wrinkles, astringent.

21.

Arabin

Acacia Arabica (Acacia)

Emulsifying and Suspending agent.

22.

Tragacanthin, Tragacanthic acid

Astrogulus gummifier (Tragacanth)

Thickening agent

23.

Papain

Carica papaya (Papaya)

Skin Cleanser.

24.

Eugenol

Eugenia cariophyllus (Clove)

Flavouring agent

25.

Lawsone

Lawsonia inermis (Henna)

Hair dye and Conditioner.

26.

Bixin

Bixa orellana (Annatto)

Coloring agent.

27.

Curcuminoids,Volatile oils

Curcuma longa (Turmeric)

In treatment of eczema Skin infection, Coloring agent in creams and ointments.

28.

Vetivenol,Vetivones

Vetiverea zizanioides (Vetiver)

Flavouring agent, Refrigerant.

29.

Aloein

Aloe barbadensis (Aloe)

Has moisturizing effect, reduces skin blemishes.

30.

Lecithin

Pisum sativum (Pea seeds)

In treatment of acne.

31.

Onion juice

Allium cepa (Onion)

In treatment of acne, skin blemishes, and Black heads.

32.

Citronellal, Geraniol, Limonene

Cymbopogon nardus (Citronella)

Flavouring agent for Liniment and Lotions.

33.

Saponin glycoside

Quillaza Saponaria (Quillaia)

As a detergent in the preparation of shampoos.

34.

Menthol , Menthone

Mentha spicata (Pudina)

Flavouring agent

35.

Oleanolic acid , Ursolic acid

Ocimum sanctum ( Tulsi , Holy Basil)

In acne treatment (due to its antimicrobial activity).

36.

Sandalwood oil

Santalum album (Sandalwood)

Reduces skin blemishes, skin softener.

37.

Sarsasapogenin , Smilagenin

Smilax ornate (Sarsaparilla)

In treatment of psoriasis.

38.

Asiaticosides

Centella asiatica (Gotu kola)

In treatment of psoriasis.

39.

Saponins

Saponaria officinalis (Soapwort)

In treatment of acne, Its aqueous extract is also used to wash hair.

 

 


 


CONCLUSION:

The present review focuses on the potential of phytochemicals for cosmetic purpose. It also makes an attempt to provide a scientific account of possible phytochemicals available for the preparation of cosmeceuticals.

 

There has been a shift in universal trend from synthetic to herbal medicine recently. Today, people around the globe are giving preference to phytopharmaceuticals due to the, increasing realization of the side effects of allopathic medicines. These coupled with the growing awareness about the medicinal benefits as well as therapeutic effect, are pushing up the demand for phytochemicals in herbal-based beauty aids worldwide. As they are cost effective and less expensive, this establishes a tremendous scope to launch numerous phytopharmaceuticals as cosmeceuticals by using appropriate phytochemical with suitable additives.

 

Though, under the current scenario, Indian market contribution is very less, phytochemical processing, promises to be a lucrative industry for the future with a growth rate of 15 to 20 % of this almost USD100 billion business. By establishing a systemic RandD, supported by active collaborative efforts of scientists, technologists, cosmetic industries and government organizations, can ensure a better future prospect for the herbal industries in times to come. This study mainly forms an ethnobotanical contribution to our knowledge and is hoped that it forms the basis for further use of various phytochemicals in cosmetic.

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Received on 12.02.2011                    Accepted on 06.03.2011        

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Res. J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 2(1): Jan. –June 2011 page 11-13