Passiflora incarnateasNaturalpHIndicator

 

AkshataS.Gavade*,GaneshB.Vambhurkar,AshaM.Jagtap,ManoharD.Kengar, Nisha M. Jagtap, OmkarA.Patil.

RajarambapuCollegeofPharmacy,Kasegaon,Dist–Sangli,Maharashtra,INDIA–415404.

*CorrespondingAuthorE-mail:akshatagavade00@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

ThesubstancewhichcauseschangeincolourwithrespecttochangeinpHofsolutionistermedasacid-baseindicator.AtdifferentpHrangeeveryindicatorshowsdifferentrangeofcolors.Therearenumbersofchemicalorsyntheticindicatorswhichareusedinacid-basetitrationbuttheseareslightcostlierandnotavailableeasilyeverytimehencenaturalindicatori.e.obtainedfromplantsourcearecomeforth,becauseplantseasilyavailableeverywhereextractionprocessislessexpensive.WeusePassionflowerandphenolphthaleinasindicatorsintitrationsofstrongacid-strongbase(HClandNaOH),strongacid–weakbase(HClandNH3),andweakacid-strongbase(CH3COOHandNaOH)andweakacid-weakbase(CH3COOHandNH3).Theresultobtainedfromtitrationofnaturalindicator(i.e.passionflowerextract)areneartotheresultobtainedfromtitrationofstandardindicator(i.e.phenolphthalein).inthisresearchworkwesuccessfullyprovethatnaturalindicatorcanalsousedintitration.

 

KEYWORDS:Passionflower(krisnkamal),naturalindicator,phenolphthalein,acid-basetitration,acid-baseindicator.

 


1.INTRODUCTION:

In1664bySirRobertBoylefirsttimereportedtheuseofnaturaldyesasacid-baseindicatorinhiscollectionofessaysExperimentalHistoryofColors[1].Indicatorsaremaybedyesorpigments,wecanisolatethemfromavarietyofsources,likeplants,algaeandfungi.Anyflower,like,red,pink,yellow,blueorpurpleincolorcontainsaorganicpigmentcalledanthocyaninthatchangecolorwithchangeinpH[2].Boylegiveimportantcontributioninclassificationofsubstancesaccordingtoacid-basetheoryusingacidbaseindicatorbutthisideaispracticedbyearliermedievalpainters,tomakewatercolorantstheyusethedyetreatedwithvinegarandlimewater[3].

 

 

Weseemanyexamplesofcolourchangearounduslikechangeincolouroficeteaafteradditionoflemonjuice.Inacidbasechemistrynatureofsolutionconfirmedbychangeincolouroflitmusforacidicbluepaperturnsintored,forbasicitchangeredtoblue,whileinneutralstatepapershownocolourchange.Theplantproductsliketea,redcabbage,grapeorturmericatmolecularlevelreactwithacidandbasesandcauseschangeincolouratdifferentpHlevels[4][5].Theprincipleofchangeincolourofsolutionisdependupondonatingoracceptingtheprotonsbetweentitrateandtitrend(accordingtoprotonictheoryacidsareprotondonorsandviceversa).afterreactionsolutionreachuptocertainphatthattimeindicatorplayimportantrolebychangeincolour.Numbersofindicatorsgivesonlytwocoloursaftertreatingwithacidorbase,butsomeshowswiderangeofcolours[6].Acidbasetitrationhavingmanyapplicationsliketodeterminetheunknownconcentrationofacidorbasebyexactlyneutralizingtheknownconcentrationofacidandbase,inqualitativeanalysis,forquantitativeanalysisetc[7].Changeincolourduringacidbasetitrationisusedtosignaltheendofacidbasetitration.Naturalindicatorspreparedfromvariousplantpartslikeflowers,leavesorfruitsareadvantageousthansyntheticone,becausesyntheticindicatorsarecostlierthannaturalalsotheycancauseschemicalpollutionduringmanufacturingprocess[8][9].Wecanusesomecommonflowerpigmentsinacidbasetitrationasanindicatorforexample,Redrose,HibiscusRosa sinensis[10],Copperleaf,Clitoriaternetea[11].

 

 

Figure1:Passionflower(Krisnkamal)

Binomialname-Passiflora incarnate

Kingdom-Plantae

Clade-Angiosperm

Family-Passifloraceae

Genus-Plassiflora

Species-P. incarnate

 

ThispassionflowerinherentlypresentinthetropicalandsemitropicalUnitedStatesalsoitobservesinMexico,CentralAmerica,northernArgentinaandBrazil[12].CherokeepeopleofsouthernAlleghenyMountainsinAmericacarryoutthecultivationoftheseplantforlycopeneinfruit[13][14].

 

Chemicalconstituents:

Alkaloids-Indolealkaloids,

Flavonoids(upto2.5%),

CyanogenicGlycosides-glycocardine(lessthan0.1%)

Carbohydrate-sucrose

Use:-passionflowerisusedintreatmentofinsomnia,alsointreatmentofgeneralizedanxiety[15].

 

MATERIALANDMETHOD:

Collectionandauthenticationofflowers:

ThefloweringplantofpassionflowercollectedfromtheSangliDistrictregion,Maharashtra.AndauthenticatedfromKusumtaiRajarambapuPatilCollege,Islampur.

 

Extractionofflowers:

CollectedflowersofpassionflowerwashedwithdistilledwaterandcutintosmallpiecesbyusingSharpeblade.Thenpigmentsareextractedbythemacerationprocessusingethanolassolvent,piecesofpetalsaresoakedintotheethanolforovernight.Thensolutionofpigmentisfilteredtoremovetheremainingflowermatter(petals)fromsolutionandusedasnaturalindicator.

 

Chemicals:

Conc.HCl,Sodiumhydroxide,ammonia,aceticacid,phenolphthaleinindicator.AllreagentsofanalyticalgradewereavailablebyRajarambapuCollegeofPharmacy,Kasegaon.

 

Glassware’s:

pHmeter,conicalflask(100ml),burettes(50ml),pipettes(10ml),testtubeetc.

 

Method:

Methodforscreeningofpassionflower:

Screeningofpassionflowerwasdonebycarryoutvarioustitrationsbetweenstrongacid-strongbase(HClVsNaOH),strongacid–weakbase(HClVsNH3),andweakacid-strongbase(CH3COOHVsNaOH)andweakacid-weakbase(CH3COOHVsNH3)eachhavingstrength1M,andusingbothflowerextractandphenolphthaleinasindicator.AttheendoftitrationchangeincolorwithrespecttochangeinpHisdetermined.

 

Methodforexperimentalscreeningofpassionflower:

Experimentalscreeningofpassionflowerwasdonebycarryoutvarioustitrationsbetweenstrongacid-strongbase(HClVsNaOH),strongacid–weakbase(HClVsNH3),andweakacid-strongbase(CH3COOHVsNaOH)andweakacid-weakbase(CH3COOHVsNH3)eachhavingstrength0.1N,0.5N,1Nand1.5N.Ineachtitration10mlofacidisdilutedwith20mlofdistilledwaterinvolumetricflaskand2-3dropsofflowerextractandphenolphthaleinistakenasindicatorinrespectivetitrationthenvolumerequiredforcolorchange(i.e.endpoint)wastaken.

 

Table1:-Screeningofpassionflower

Titrant

Titrand

Indicatorcolourchange(pHrange)

Standard

Flowerextract

HCl

NaOH

GreentoPink

(4.2-6.0)

PinktoGreenishyellow

(2.6-5.4)

HCl

NH3

PinktoColourless

(6.3-7.5)

PinktoColourless

(3.0-5.4)

CH3COOH

NaOH

GreentoPink

(4.4-6.2)

PinktoGray

(3.7-5.7)

CH3COOH

NH3

PinktoColourless

(4.2-6.0)

PinktoGray

(4.3-5.6)

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Thescreeningofpassionflowerextractisdoneforuseasnaturalindicatorinacidbasetitrationandtheseobtainedresultfromscreeningwascomparedwithresultobtainedfromstandardindicatorsuchasphenolphthaleinforstrongacid-strongbase(HClandNaOH),strongacid–weakbase(HClandNH3),andweakacid-strongbase(CH3COOHandNaOH)andweakacid-weakbase(CH3COOHandNH3)titrations.Theresultobtainedfromtitrationofnaturalindicator(i.e.passionflowerextract)areneartotheresultobtainedfromtitrationofstandardindicator(i.e.phenolphthalein).

 

Table-2:Experimentalscreeningofpassionflower

Titration

Strength

Indicator

Passiflora incarnate

Mean±SD(n=5)

 

 

HCl

Vs

NaOH

0.1

Phenolphthalein

8.04±0.11

Flowerextract

8.02±0.27

0.5

Phenolphthalein

7.90±0.25

Flowerextract

7.28±0.70

1.0

Phenolphthalein

7.98±0.19

Flowerextract

7.14±0.39

1.5

Phenolphthalein

7.96±0.28

Flowerextract

7.64±0.08

 

 

HCl

Vs

NH3

0.1

Phenolphthalein

16.98±0.14

Flowerextract

16.04±0.18

0.5

Phenolphthalein

26.82±0.23

Flowerextract

25.46±0.45

1.0

Phenolphthalein

27.34±0.26

Flowerextract

26.08±0.37

1.5

Phenolphthalein

27.10±0.14

Flowerextract

26.22±0.33

 

 

CH3COOH

Vs

NaOH

0.1

Phenolphthalein

8.68±0.37

Flowerextract

9.32±0.24

0.5

Phenolphthalein

8.94±0.30

Flowerextract

7.86±0.27

1.0

Phenolphthalein

8.98±0.19

Flowerextract

7.64±0.29

1.5

Phenolphthalein

8.84±0.08

Flowerextract

7.68±0.37

 

 

CH3COOH

Vs

NH3

0.1

Phenolphthalein

27.12±0.26

Flowerextract

26.54±0.96

0.5

Phenolphthalein

27.04±0.26

Flowerextract

26.30±0.25

1.0

Phenolphthalein

27.16±0.24

Flowerextract

27.66±0.27

1.5

Phenolphthalein

27.30±0.25

Flowerextract

26.00±0.15

 

CONCLUSION:

Thenaturalindicator(i.e.extractofpassionflower)isbeneficialbecausethisnaturalindicatorgivesendpointuponslightchangeinpHasearlierascomparetostandardindicator(i.e.phenolphthalein),wecanusethesenaturalindicatoraloneinsuchacid-basetitration.Hencethisnaturalindicatoreconomicalandveryusefulascomparetosyntheticone.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

AuthorsarehighlyAcknowledgethehelpoflaboratorystaffofRajarambapuCollegeofPharmacy,Kasegaon.Forprovidingnecessaryequipmentrequiredforresearchwork.AlsowearehighlyAcknowledgethehelpandguidanceofDr.M.A.BhutkarandPatilindrajeet.

 

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Received on 21.05.2018Acceptedon10.06.2018

©A&VPublicationsallrightreserved

Research J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 9(1): Jan.-June 2018 page04-06.

DOI:10.5958/2321-5844.2018.00002.X