Formulation and Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal Wash

 

Debarshi Datta*, Subhashis Debnath, Sirisha P., Nagasree T., Swetha D., M. Niranjan Babu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Seven Hills College of Pharmacy, Venkatramapuram, Tirupati- 517 561, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: shcppub@yahoo.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

Personal hygiene is the process of maintaining cleanliness. Failure to maintain adequate personal hygiene can result in illnesses of all kinds. Poor hand-washing practices increase the likelihood of contracting contagious illnesses such as influenza and food-borne illnesses like Salmonella infection. Multipurpose herbal wash is expected to be proven more economical compared to conventional products as the customer may get the desired effect by buying one container of bodywash which can act as a shampoo also. Formulated herbal wash preparations were evaluated for physical parameters like colour, fragrance and chemical parameters like pH, percent of solids contents, viscosity, surface tension, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, foaming ability and foam stability, antimicrobial activity, anti fungal activity and results shown that all were in the accepted limits. Combination of neem and tulsi was found to be effective, easier to produce stable herbal wash formulation. It is having good foaming characters and anti bacterial as well as anti fungal activity. So it can be suitable for both skin and hair care compared to other synthetic preparations.

 

KEYWORDS: Personal hygiene, Multipurpose herbal wash, antimicrobial, antifungal.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Now- a days in the whole world there is return towards the use of herbal products and to adopt more natural way of life. People prefer natural food, herbal medicines and natural curing practices for healthy life. There is much craze for the vegetable products cultivated through biological/organic framing without using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The usage of herbal cosmetics has been increased to many folds in personal care system and there is a great demand for the herbal cosmetics. All this happened due to the excessive use of synthetic based products, synthetic chemicals, chemicals dyes and their derived products in the last one and half century; their production and usage cause human health hazard with several side effects leading to numerous diseases. It also caused considerable environmental pollution and disturbed our eco-system1.

 

Personal hygiene is the process of maintaining cleanliness. Failure to maintain adequate personal hygiene can result in illnesses of all kinds. Poor hand-washing practices increase the likelihood of contracting contagious illnesses such as influenza and food-borne illnesses like Salmonella infection. Infrequent washing of the hair and face can lead to buildup that triggers acne breakouts and skin infections like impetigo. Multipurpose herbal wash is expected to be proven more economical compared to conventional products as the customer may get the desired effect by buying one container of bodywash which can act as a shampoo also. Apart from this because of adding totally herbal products the chance of irritation and allergic reactions will be negligible compared to other marketed products which more chemicals. All the material to make the multi purpose formulation are easily available and a unit to manufacture such a formulation can be started at any location where power is available and also because of not using any costly chemicals and complicated machinery the product is more economical compared to other marketed formulation2.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Plant materials:

Neem (Azadiracta indica), Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum), Amla (Emblica officinalis), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), soapnut (Sapindus trifoliates, Shikakai (Acacia concinna), (Karunakara Herbal Drug Store, Tirupati) Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis)- (Sami Labs Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore)

 

Chemicals:

Sodium benzoate (Finer chemicals, Ahmadabad), Pottasium hydroxide (Merck, Mumbai), Olive oil (central drug house Pvt Ltd, New Delhi), Borax (Accord Labs, Secunderabad), Distilled water (Biomedical Inc. Kukatpally, Hyderabad).

 

Formulation procedure for multipurpose herbal wash:

Measured amount of olive oil for for the formulation was transferred in the china dish and it was heated at 1000C. In another beaker potassium hydroxide solution (Lye water solution) was prepared and it was transferred into boiling oil with slow steering. The above solution was then mixed with the help of mechanical stirrer to get a semisolid mixture. Consistency depends on type of oils used and time of stirring. It was kept for some time then this was subjected to occasional stirring. Sufficient water was added into that to get the desired consistency and mixed well. After the soap completely dissolved in the water neutralized it with 33% borax solution. Prepared plant extracts was transferred to the prepared liquid soap. Then the glycerin, EDTA were added with stirring and to get desired consistency natural thickening agent guar gum was used. pH was maintained by using citrus juice. Finally the sodium benzoate was added as a preservative3-5.

 

EVALUATION PARAMETERS3-9:

Physical appearance/visual inspection:

Colour:

Colour of the preparation was checked visually

 

Fragrance:

Herbal wash preparation was tested for good fragrance

 

Determination of pH:

The pH of 10% formulation in distilled water was determined at room temperature 25C using standardized pH meter.

 

Determine percent of solids contents:

A clean dry evaporating dish was weighed and added 4 grams of formulation to the evaporating dish. The dish and formulation was weighed. The exact weight of the formulation was calculated only and put the evaporating dish with formulation was placed on the hot plate until the liquid portion was evaporated. The weight of the formulation only (solids) after drying was calculated.

 

Rheological evaluations:

The viscosity of the formulations was determined by using Brook field viscometer.

 

Surface tension measurement:

Measurements were carried out with a 10% formulation dilution in distilled water at room temperature. Thoroughly clean the stalagmometer using purified water.

 

Dirt dispersion:

Two drops of formulation were added in a large test tube contain 10 ml of distilled water. 1 drop of India ink was added; the test tube was stoppered and shakes it ten times. The amount of ink in the foam was estimated as None, Light, Moderate, or Heavy.

 

Cleaning action:

5 grams of wool yarn were placed in grease, after that it was placed in 200 ml. of water containing 1 gram of formulation in a flask. The flask was shaked for 4 minutes at the rate of 50 times a minute. The solution was removed and sample was taken out, dried and weighed. The amount of grease removed was calculated by using the following equation.

DP = 100(1-T/C)

 

In which, DP is the percentage of detergency power, C is the weight of sebum in the control sample and T is the weight of sebum in the test sample.

 

Foaming ability and foam stability:

Cylinder shake method was used for determining foaming ability. 50 ml of the 1% formulation was put into a 500ml graduated cylinder and covered the cylinder with hand and shaken for 10 times. The total volumes of the foam contents after 1 minute shaking were recorded. The foam volume was calculated only. Immediately after shaking the volume of foam at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes were recorded4-6.


 

 

Table no:1 Composition of different formulations

COMPOUNDS

F1

F2

F3

Azadirachta indica extract (%w/v)

5

7

10

Ocimum sanctum extract(%w/v)

2

4

6

Shikakiah extract (%w/v)

8

10

12

Soapnut extract(%w/v)

16

20

24

Bacopa monnieri extract(%w/v)

10

10

10

Emblica officinalis juice(%v/v)

10

10

10

Aloe vera juice(%v/v)

10

10

10

Citrus(lemon juice) (%v/v)

10

10

10

Guargum(%w/v)

2

2

2

Glycerin(ml)

1

1

1

EDTA(gm)

0.15

0.15

0.15

KOH(gm)

3.8

3.8

3.8

Olive oil(ml)

20

20

20

Sodium benzoate(%w/v)

0.05

0.05

0.05


Stability Study:

To study the thermal stability of formulations, samples were placed in glass tubes, some placed in a 45C oven and the others in a 5C chiller. After one week, their appearance and physical stability were inspected .To assess their mechanical stability, each sample was centrifuged at 2400 rpm for 3minutes and then its structural stability was inspected.

 

Anti microbial study:

Cup plate method was used to check the anti microbial activity.

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS:

Physical Appearance/Visual Inspection

The results of visual inspection of series of formulations are listed in Table No.3.

 

Colour: Colour of all formulations are light brown.

 

Fragrance: Pleasant

 

Table No:2 Physical appearance of formulations

S.No

Formulation Code

Physical Appearance

1

F1

Light Brown

2

F2

Light Brown

3

F3

Light Brown

 

 

 

 

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS:

pH:

The pH of formulations has been shown to be important for improving and enhancing the qualities of hair, minimizing irritation to the eyes and stabilizing the ecological balance of the scalp. pH is one of the ways to minimize damage to the hair. Mild acidity prevents swelling and promotes tightening of the scales, there by inducing shine. This pH also suitable for skin and it was non-irritating to the skin.

 

Percent of Solids Contents

If the formulation has too many solids it will be hard to work into the hair and too hard to wash out. The result of percent of solids contents is tabulated in table No.3. and was found between 8-10%. As a result, they were easy to wash out.

 

Viscosity:

It has shown that the viscosity of all three formulations are same. The values are tabulated in table No. 3.

 

Surface tension:

It has been mentioned that a proper herbal wash should be able to decrease the surface tension of pure water to about 40 dynes/cm.Surface tension reduction is one of the mechanisms implicated in detergency. The reduction in surface tension of water from 72.8 dynes/cm to 35.40dynes/ cm by the herbal wash formulation is an indication of their good detergent action.

 


Table no:3 Determination of chemical parameters

S.NO

FORMULATION

pH

SOLID CONTENTS (%)

VISCOSITY

(Centi poise)

SURFACE TENSION

(dyn/cm)

1.

F1

5.82

9.92

10.62

35.32

2.

F2

5.83

9.96

10.58

34.35

3.

F3

5.85

8.98

10.64

33.40

 

 

 


Fig no:1 Comparison solid contents of different formulations

 

Fig no:2 Comparison of pH of different formulations

 

 

Fig no:3 Comparison of viscosity of different formulations

 

 

Fig no:4 Comparison of surface tension of different formulations

 

 

Dirt Dispersion

Formulation that cause the ink to concentrate in the foam is considered poor quality, the dirt should stay in water. Dirt that stays in the foam will be difficult to rinse away. It will redeposit on the hair and skin.All three formulations showed similar results. These results indicate that no dirt would stays in the foam.

 

Cleaning action:

Cleaning action was tested on wool yarn in grease. Cleaning is the primary aim of any herbal wash preparation. Results shown that all three formulations have good cleaning ability against dirt and grease like materials.

 

Table no:4 Determination of dirt dispersion and cleaning action

S.

NO

FORMULATION

DIRT DISPERSION

CLEANING ACTION (%)

1.

F1

Light

24.12

2.

F2

None

32.24

3.

F3

None

35.12

 

 

Fig no:5 Comparison of cleaning action of different formulations

 

 

FOAM ABILITY:

Although foam generation has little to do with the cleansing ability of formulations, it is of paramount importance to the consumer and is therefore an important. Criterion in evaluating any herbal preparation used for cleaning purpose. All the three formulations showed similar foaming characteristics in distilled water. All three formulations showed comparable foaming properties. The foam stability of herbal formulations is listed in table No. 5.

 

 

Table no:5 Determination of foam volume

TIME IN MINUTES

FOAM VOLUME (ml)

F1

F2

F3

1

45

55

60

2

40

50

58

3

33

45

55

4

26

40

48

5

19

36

35

 

 

 

FOAM RETENTION:

Foam retention time was checked for the different formulation and it was found to be unstable after 5 minutes.

 

Table no:6 Determination of foam retention

S.NO

TIME

(min)

VOLUME(ml)

F1

F2

F3

1.

Initial

4

5

6

2.

1

3

4

5

3.

2

2

3

4

4.

3

1

1

3

5.

4

0

1

1

6.

5

0

0

0

 

 

STABILITY STUDIES:

Stability and acceptability of organoleptic properties (odor and color) of formulations during the storage period indicated that they are chemically and physically stable. The stability of herbal formulation is listed in table No. 7.

 

 

Table no:7 Stability study

S.

NO

PARAMETERS

 

FORMULATION

F1

F2

F3

1.

Physical appearance

Stable

Stable

Stable

2.

pH

5.82

5.85

5.84

3.

Solid contents

9.92

9.98

8.98

4.

Viscosity

10.62

10.58

10.64

5.

Surface tension

34.06

34.06

33.03

6.

Foam ability

50

60

60

ANTI MICROBIAL STUDY:

The results of zone of inhibition of the different formulation were recorded in table No.8. The results shows that all the formulations have antibacterial activity towards all pathogenic bacteria.The highest antibacterial activity was found in F3 formulation which contains 5% azadiracta indica + 5% Ocimum sanctum.

 

Table no:8 Anti microbial study of different formulations

S.NO

MICROORGANISM

ZONE OF INHIBITION (mm)

F1

F2

F3

1.

Escherichia coli

13

15

16

2.

Bacillus subtilis

21

21

23

3.

Staphylococcus aureus

20

23

26

 

 

Fig no:6 Zone of inhibition of microorganism (Escherichia coli) after 24 hours

 

 

Fig no:7 Zone of inhibition of microorganism (Bacillus subtilis) after 24 hours

 

 

Fig no:8 Zone of inhibition of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus) after 24 hours

 

ANTI FUNGAL STUDY:

The results of zone of inhibition of the different formulation were recorded in table No.9. The results shows that all the formulations have antifungal activity towards pathogenic fungus.The highest antifungal activity was found in F3 formulation which contains 5% azadiracta indica + 5% Ocimum sanctum.

 

Table no:9 Anti fungal study of different formulations

S.NO

FORMULATION

ZONE OF INHIBITION (mm)

(Phytopthera infestans)

1.

F1

20

2.

F2

16

3.

F3

23

 

 

Fig no:9 Zone of inhibition of fungus(Phytopthera infestans) after 24 hours

 

CONCLUSION:

Formulated herbal wash preparations were evaluated for physical parameters like colour, fragrance and chemical parameters like pH, percent of solids contents, viscosity, surface tension, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, foaming ability and foam stability, antimicrobial activity, anti fungal activity and results shown that all were in the accepted limits. Combination of neem and tulsi was found to be effective, easier to produce stable herbal wash formulation. It is having good foaming characters and anti bacterial as well as anti fungal activity. So it can be suitable for both skin and hair care compared to other synthetic preparations.

 

REFERENCES:

1. M. Vimaladevi. Textbook of Cosmetics. CBS Publishers and Distributors, India, 2005.

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5. P. Prakash and Neelu Gupta. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.49 (2); 2005: 125131.

6. S.C. Bhatia. Perfumes, Soaps, Detergents, and Cosmetics (Soaps and Detergents). CBS Publishers and Distributors, India. 2001.

7. Ellen Peacock. Making liquid soap, 2003. (Available at http://www.ellensessentials.com/)

8. N. Matsuda, J, Japan, U.S Patent 4, 312, 771,(1982). Using SAP Values and Lye to Make Soap, Certified Lye. (Available at http://www.certified-lye.com/lye-soap.html).

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Received on 30.01.2013 Accepted on 12.03.2013

A&V Publications all right reserved

Res. J. Topical and Cosmetic Sci. 4(1): July Dec. 2013 page 48-53